Sunday, August 2, 2020

Who named the Curiosity Mars rover

Who named the Curiosity Mars rover The Curiosity Mars rover was named by an 11 year old girl in Lenexa, Kansas, USA. Her name is Clara Ma and below is her inspiring story.On Aug. 5 at 10:31 p.m. PST, a rover named Curiosity touched down safely on the surface of Mars, and I was lucky enough to have a front-row seat.My name is Clara, and when I was in 6th grade, I won the essay contest NASA held to name its next Mars rover. The essay I wrote was not even 250 words long, but somehow it was enough to change my life. I still remember that chilly December day, sitting in science class. I’d finished a worksheet early and decided to get a TIME for Kids magazine off of Mrs. Estevez’s bookshelf. It was the 2008 Invention Issue, but that wasn’t the only thing that caught my eye. In the magazine, there was an article about a girl who named the Mars Exploration Rovers, Spirit and Opportunity.The article also talked about the essay contest NASA was holding to name its next Mars rover. Before I even knew anything else about i t, a single word flooded my 11-year-old mind: Curiosity.I couldn’t wait for the bell to ring so I could get started on my essay. That afternoon, I raced home from the bus stop, sat down at the computer, and typed until my fingers ached. It turns out I was just in time. A few days later, and the contest would have closed.Five months later, shortly after I had turned 12, I was watching a National Geographic special on mammoths when the phone rang. My mom answered, and immediately, a wide smile spread across her face.When she told me that I had won, I was happier than I could ever remember being. I screamed and ran up and down the stairs and all around the house. I completely forgot about the mammoths and did not even remember to turn off the TV until it was really late.Curiosity is such an important part of who I am. I have always been fascinated by the stars, the planets, the sky and the universe. I remember as a little girl, my grandmother and I would sit together in the backyard for hours. She’d tell me stories and point out constellations.Here in the heart of the country, my grandmother would say, there were no bright city lights to compete with the brilliance of the stars. There was just the chirping of the cicadas and the soft summer breeze.My grandmother lived in China, thousands of miles away from my home in Kansas. I loved the stars because they kept us together even when we were apart. They were always there, yet there was so much I didn’t know about them. That’s what I love so much about space. No matter how much we learn, it will always possess a certain degree of mystery.In the past, space exploration may have been a competition to see who got somewhere first or the fastest. But now, it is one of the few things that bring people together. Science is a language that needs no translation. It doesn’t matter where you’re from or what you look like â€" you just have to have a thirst for knowledge and a passion for learning in order to succeed .People often ask me why we go to faraway places like Mars. Why do we explore? My answer to that is simple: because we can. Because we’re curious. Because we as human beings do not just stay holed up in one place. We are constantly wondering and trying to find out what’s over the hill and beyond the horizon.The Curiosity rover is more than just a robot. It is more than just a titanium body and aluminum wheels. Curiosity represents the hard work, passion, love and commitment of thousands of people from all over the world who were brought together by science.Science is so awesome. It is breathtaking and mind-blowing, intertwining and unifying; and sometimes, it’s just a little bit crazy. The discoveries we make about our world are incredibly humbling. They move us forward and have the potential to benefit all of mankind.This December it will be four years of my life that have been tied to Curiosity in some way. I’ve met so many amazing people through this experience, from scie ntists to engineers to administrators to volunteers. Their dedication and fervor inspire me immensely. My journey with Curiosity and the MSL mission team has shaped the person that I am today, as well as the person I would one day like to become.I am deeply grateful to everyone who made it possible for me to have this amazing adventure.And to you, I hope your curiosity takes you far.By Clara MaHer winning essay:Curiosity is an everlasting flame that burns in everyones mind. It makes me get out of bed in the morning and wonder what surprises life will throw at me that day. Curiosity is such a powerful force. Without it, we wouldnt be who we are today. When I was younger, I wondered, Why is the sky blue?, Why do the stars twinkle?, Why am I me?, and I still do. I had so many questions, and America is the place where I want to find my answers. Curiosity is the passion that drives us through our everyday lives. We have become explorers and scientists with our need to ask questions and t o wonder. Sure, there are many risks and dangers, but despite that, we still continue to wonder and dream and create and hope. We have discovered so much about the world, but still so little. We will never know everything there is to know, but with our burning curiosity, we have learned so much.Clara Ma Photos:More readings More about Curiosity rover at Wikipedia Story source: http://mashable.com/2012/11/16/clara-ma-curiosity-rover/ Claras winning essay at NASA

Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Effects Of Reinforcement And Punishment On Individuals

Effects of Reinforcement and Punishment One would be surprised at the behavior modifications and ability that Operant Conditioning imposes on individuals. Operant Conditioning, one of the fundamental concepts in behavioral psychology, is a method of learning that occurs through rewards and punishments for behavior. In the 1920’s B.F Skinner, known as â€Å"the Father of Operant Conditioning†, believed that the best way to understand behavior is to look at the causes of an action and its consequences. He believed you could change or continue one’s behavior with certain exercises. As a result, he founded the principles of positive/negative reinforcement and positive/negative punishment. In psychology the goal of punishment is to decrease a behavior, while reinforcement is to increase a behavior. This is the basis for what is known today as behavioral psychology. Starting with positive and negative reinforcement, B.F Skinner concluded in that negative reinforcement a response or behavior is strengthened by stopping, removing or avoiding a negative outcome. In positive reinforcement, the method is used to modify behavior. Positive reinforcement is an effective way to change a behavior without implementing unpleasant methods. Positive reinforcement is mostly used for children but it can also be used on pets and even adults in some cases. Some examples of positive reinforcement are like saying â€Å"good job!† or â€Å"wow I’m very proud of you!† Sometimes just giving someone a compliment onShow MoreRelatedConditioning Procedures in Shaping Childrens Behaviour1582 Words   |  7 Pagespuzzle box. The cat become less random and more efficient until it open the latch without hesitation after several random attempt. Thorndike called this relation between a response and its consequences the law of effect. (Martin et.al, 2006). Although Thorndike discovered the law of effect, B.F Skinner was the one who brought the study of opera nt conditioning into the lab and devised objective methods for studying human behaviour. He invented the operant chamber which is also known as the SkinnerRead MoreCorporal Punishment and the Effects of Its Usage757 Words   |  3 PagesCorporal Punishment and the effects of its usage Corporal punishment is the ability to make physical contact as a form of punishment for reprimanding ones behavior. Corporal punishment versus positive reinforcement while they both serve their purpose corporal punishment is known to be more effective. The most common form of disciplining has always been either a spanking, corporal punishment has been dated all the way back to biblical times. Now the corporal punishment that occurred during biblicalRead MoreThe Theory Of Criminal Behavior955 Words   |  4 Pagescriminal behavior and delinquency the best would be the Differential Reinforcement Theory, reviewed by Robert Burgess and Ronald Akers after it was criticized by C.R. Jeffery. Burgess and Akers argued against Sutherland’s work by using what he had used already and adding operant conditioning and modeling/condition in order to explain criminal behavior more clearly. They offered seven propositions to summarize the Differential Reinforcement Theory, which was a justifi cation of Sutherland’s none principlesRead MoreSkinner Behavioral Analysis Summary972 Words   |  4 Pagesfinally the actual desired behavior. (Feist, J. and Roberts pg. 456) Reinforcement – Skinner believed reinforcement had two effects, strengthening the behavior and rewarding the subject and that any behavior that increases ability to for survival tends to be strengthened. However not every reinforcement is pleasing or enjoyable, the job you do to receive the paycheck might be boring or physically taxing. Positive reinforcement – or application of a positive external stimulus, produces a beneficialRead MoreEssay on Human Beahavior1512 Words   |  7 PagesFrederic Skinner, popularly known as B.F. Skinner for obvious reason, the master of in human behavior, a teacher as well as parents can now have an idea as to the know how’s in shaping human behavior. Shaping human behavior means leading a certain individual towards performing repeatedly a certain conduct bit by bit. Bit by bit since you cannot expect a lazy person to do his assignment habitually just by saying so. You can’t look forward seeing a chain smoker quit smoking overnight. Nor an alcoholicRead MoreReinforcement Theory Vs. Operant Conditioning1513 Words   |  7 PagesThere has been concern if the effects of certain types of reinforcement (such as positive and negative) can effectively change an individual’s behavior. There is evidence to suggest that certain types of positive and negative reinf orcement can motivate an individual far beyond his potential, while punishment, on the other hand, is completely different from negative reinforcement, but it is very often associated with it. Both forms of reinforcement are designed to have a desired behavior learned andRead MoreMost Effective Form of Instrumental Conditioning in Teaching Someone An Exercise Routine1477 Words   |  6 Pagescontrast the concepts of positive and negative reinforcement as related to learning situation, and explain the role of reward and punishment in learning an exercise routine. Finally, the paper will explain which form of instrumental conditioning would be most effective in teaching someone an exercise routine. Instrumental conditioning is the learning procedure that believes that â€Å"the organism must act in a certain way before it is reinforced; that is, reinforcement is contingent on the organism’s behavior†Read MoreHow Behavioral Treatments Are Based On Basic Principles And Re search1476 Words   |  6 PagesSelf-injurious behaviour (SIB) is a debilitating problem that affects individuals with developmental delays (Singh, Dawson, Gregory, 1980). SIB entails a range of chronic behaviours which lead to physical harm that occur frequently within a sustained period, e.g., include self-biting, self-hitting, and self-pinching (Favell et al., 1982). The adverse impact of SIB escalates as these individuals approach adulthood, with increasingly prevalent problems such as physical damage, social seclusion, andRead MoreThe Effect Of Punishment On Children Essay1591 Words   |  7 Pages1. Punishment is defined as reduction in the strength of a behavior because of its consequences. For example, your child misses their curfew one night and you punish them by saying they can’t go out for two weeks, it is more likely then the child will not miss their curfew again because of the negative consequence and therefore reducing or decreasing the behavior of missing one’s curfew. Skinner’s view in 1938 was that punishment suppresses behavior but only for a short period of time. He cameRead MoreSkinner And His Contribution On Behaviorism And Operant Conditioning1500 Words   |  6 Pagesstudied by many psychologists for many years now. B.F. Skinner was known as one of the most controversial intellectual figures of the late twentieth century who introduced behavior analysis and the idea of reinforcement (Myers, 2010). Skinner developed much of his work based from the law of effect by Edward Thorndike, who was also known as a philosopher. This research paper will focus on B.F. Skinner and his contribution on behaviorism and operant conditioning. This paper will provide an in-depth explanation

Monday, May 11, 2020

MIMO Wireless Channel and How to Determine Its Capacity...

‘‘If I have seen farther, it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.’’ is very truly coated by Sir Isaac Newton. Ideas gave way to idea. When Marconi invented wireless communication 100 years ago, we had no idea that one day life will seem to be impossible without it. It has penetrated each and every aspect of human life and has resulted into endless demands on bandwidth and spectrum. And by standing on the shoulders of giants, Teletarand Foschinigave the technique of MIMO system which would increase the spectral efficiency of the wireless system to its maximum compared to all the current technologies. Multiple antennas are used for transmission and reception to increases the capacity of the wireless channel.Capacity is expressed as the†¦show more content†¦SIMO Fig1: Different antenna configurations in space-time systems. Now we know that MIMO is an array, so we need to be some terms related to antenna array, which is Array gain, the average increase in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at the receiverthat arises from the coherent combining effect of multiple antennas at the receiveror transmitter or both.If the channel is known to the multiple antenna transmitter, The transmitter will weigh the transmission with weights, depending on the channelcoefficients, so that there is coherent combining at the single antenna receiver.The array gain in this case is called transmitter array gain. And vice versa for SIMO case, which will be known as receiver Array Gain. Basically, multiple antenna systems require perfectchannel knowledge either at the transmitter or receiver or both to achieve thisarray gain. Next important term is Diversity Gain. Multipath fading is a significant problem in communications. In a fading channel,signals experience fades.When the signalpower drops significantly, the channel is said to be in a fade. This gives rise tohigh bit error rates (BER).This involvesproviding replicas of the transmitted signal over time, frequency, or space. Thereare three types of diversity schemes in wireless communications: I .Temporal diversity: In this case replicas of the transmitted signal are provided across time by a combination of channel coding and time interleaving strategies.Show MoreRelatedEvaluating A Resource Allocation Scheme For Coordinated Multi Point1517 Words   |  7 Pagessignificant gains in terms of the overall capacity of cell and cell-edge user throughput. The main purpose of this paper is to enhance the throughput of cell and , the cell-edge user’s, and the fairness among user equipment terminals (UEs) in LTE-Advanced (LTE-A) systems using CoMP In this paper we propose a resource allocation scheme for coordinated multipoint (CoMP). 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This Document provide detailed information about quality of structure (QoS) in wireless networks and cellular networks. This document contain overview of QoS and several enhancementRead MorePen-Style Personal Networking Gadget Package12728 Words   |  51 Pagescalled as P-ISM (â€Å"Pen-style Personal Networking Gadget Package†), is nothing but the new discovery, which is under developing stage by NEC Corporation. P-ISM is a gadget package including five functions: a CPU pen, communication pen with a cellular phone function, virtual keyboard, a very small projector, and a camera. P-ISM’s are connected with one another through short-range wireless technology. The whole set is also connected to the Internet through the cellular phone function. 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Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Impact Of Challenging Behaviour Education Essay Free Essays

string(63) " at hazard of attending shortage overactive upset \( ADHD \) \." The challenge for pedagogues is non to discredit or decrease the extraordinary attempts but, consistent with IDEA and the research to direct their attempts into transforming ordinary scenes so that they excessively can fit what today is regarded as extraordinary and tomorrow will be regarded as ordinary – ( Soodak et al.,2007 ) The intent of this assignment is to acknowledge the function of â€Å" Challenging Behaviour † , how it affects people when covering with their behavior and how do we assist them get bying with it by seting the theory into pattern. The appraisal of this assignment was structured on 25 hours of observation on a 13 twelvemonth old pupil during school, community and place. We will write a custom essay sample on The Impact Of Challenging Behaviour Education Essay or any similar topic only for you Order Now This assignment is sectioned into three parts which in the first portion depict what is disputing behaviors and how it affect the individual. The 2nd portion describes the pupil and his interactions with the environment around him. In the 3rd portion, this assignment describes a contemplation of what the perceiver saw during the 25 hours of observation that lead to a support program which will be built on the student`s strengths instead than concentrating on his demands. This will assist the pupil develop resilience and being able to emerge as a extremely functioning grownup. 1 ) Challenging Behaviour Terminology The nomenclature â€Å" ambitious behavior † has been used to mention to the â€Å" obstinate † or â€Å" debatable † behaviors which may be exhibited by persons with a learning disablement. There is no exact word to depict disputing behavior. Challenging behavior manifests itself into different types, changing from low to high strength. â€Å" Culturally unnatural behavior of such an strength, frequence or continuance that the physical safety of the individual or others is likely to be placed in serious hazard, or behavior which is likely to earnestly restrict usage of, or consequence in the individual being denied entree to, ordinary community installations † ( Emerson, 1995 ) . 1.1 ) The Impact of Challenging Behaviour In every behavior classified as â€Å" disputing † , there are three features in common, which: hinder the person from larning, developing and wining is harmful to the individual himself and to others puts the person at high hazard for subsequently societal jobs and school failure Persons that fall under the class of Challenging behavior frequently find themselves rejected, disliked and frequently ridiculed by the society. This group of people experience lesion in their self-esteem / assurance, accepting them to be secluded, depressed, and deprived from chances to develop, advancement and pattern societal accomplishments that they highly need. Sometimes pedagogues / society exacerbate the job. The book â€Å" Exceeding Lifes † ( 4th ed pg 133 ) , stated that excessively frequently teachers concentrate on students` shortages instead than their strengths. A concrete illustration is when persons with disputing behaviors are capable to zero tolerance policies such as suspending pupils from schools, handling them like they do non exists or when we order them to travel out of the category. This all go on when first ; the behavior is seen before the person, and 2nd ; the person in non seen as a whole individual. â€Å" Students who experience failure in one c ountry, besides tend to see failure in the other † – ( Jolivette, 2000 ) . Challenging behavior is caused by several factors interacting with each other such as environmental stressors, nerve-racking life status, kid maltreatment and school factors. â€Å" It is hence of import to step in every bit early as possible † ( Slaby, Roedell, Arezzo, and Hendrix, 1995 ) ( Tarbox, 2009 ) ( Bessell, 2001a ) 1.2 ) Covering with Challenging Behaviour To better understand when covering with disputing behavior we have to self-question: why do it go on? what intent do they ( people with C.B ) service? how can we take the job off from the individual? What actions do we take to forestall the job from happening once more? 1.3 ) Functions of Behaviour â€Å" The map of a behavior refer to the beginning of environmental support for it † – ( Tarbox et al ; 2009 ) . There are four common maps in behaviour which are: Attention: desire for attending from equals / grownups Escape: flight from individual, undertaking or environment Sensory: the behavior feels good or meets a centripetal demand Tangible: desire for a specific point or activity 1.4 ) Determining the Functioning of Behaviour To turn to disputing behaviour one demand to find its operation. Determining the maps of behavior, one demand to: Interview ( ecological event ) what type of relationship there is between the individual and his environment Direct observation ( the four maps of behavior ) Functional Analysis ( eg: S.T.A.R Model / ABC- Accident Behaviour Consequences ) Functional Hypothesis ( the information that emerges from informations / analysis ) 2 ) Student Profile Matthew is a 14 twelvemonth old adolescent. He is tall, robust and energetic. He has brown eyes and short brown hair. Matthew like custodies on activities and in fact his avocations are constructing carnival military personnels and cot, cookery, playing picture games and playing football. His future aspiration is to work in household concern and to get down one of his ain. One of his wants is to complete the secondary school every bit shortly as possible to recognize his dream. 2.1 ) Student`s Background Matthew is the eldest sibling. He has a younger brother ( Christopher ) , two old ages younger than him. Christopher attends the same secondary school as Matthew and every twenty-four hours he spends most of the clip at his grandparents` house ( few metres off from his place ) . Matthew`s parents have minimal educational cognition. Matthew`s male parent ( Joseph ) run an agricultural household concern and spend most of the twenty-four hours working in the Fieldss. Matthew`s female parent return attention of the house and when needed she besides gives her hubby a manus. 2.2 ) Student`s Medical History At the age of three Matthew was diagnosed with leukaemia. This status impaired Matthew from larning due to the fact that he ne’er went to kinder and twelvemonth one. Matthew started go toing on a regular basis to school from twelvemonth two that subsequently on he was besides found diagnosed with larning troubles ( LD ) and at hazard of attending shortage overactive upset ( ADHD ) . You read "The Impact Of Challenging Behaviour Education Essay" in category "Essay examples" 2.3 ) Educational arrangements â€Å" Childhood leukaemia subsisters may develop non verbal acquisition disablements that affect their authorship and concentration accomplishment † – ( Bessell, 2001a ) Primary schools – When go toing at the local authorities school, Matthew ( Year 2 ) found it really hard with larning. The undermentioned twelvemonth his female parent applied Matthew to be supported by a learning support helper ( Lsa ) . Harmonizing to the Statementing Moderating Panel study, Matthew was found diagnosed with larning troubles along with troubles with attending span, distractibility and impulsivity. ( These together with emotional troubles are farther lending to Matthew`s troubles in accomplishing school ) . The SMP board recommended shared support but shortly turned it into one to one support. Matthew started being supported from Year 3. Matthew repeated that same twelvemonth ( Year 3 ) because his academic public presentation was well below norm. At school Matthew started being bullied ( Year 3 -Year 5 ) . Matthew was unwilling to travel to school and frequently spliting into fits. His female parent had to alter his school because she didn`t find any cooperat ion with the school staff at that clip. Matthew attended his concluding twelvemonth of primary school at another authorities school in another vicinity. Secondary School – Matthew`s psychological study that was done in 2008 stated that he was at hazard of attending shortage overactive upset ( ADHD ) . Matthew has been go toing to this secondary school for the last three old ages, since his passage. At this school he is being supported by Inter-Disciplinary Team. 2.4 ) The Inter-Disciplinary Team Inco ( Mr Stephen Spiteri ) Head Master ( Can. Noel Saliba ) School Psychologist / Councilor ( Antonwlla Mizzi ) Lsa ( Ms. Leanne Azzopardi ) Student`s female parent ( Josette ) Student ( Matthew ) Through this squad, at school, Mathew`s academic public presentation is monitored. The Lsa in coaction with the topic instructors adapts the work for Matthew and communicates with Matthew`s female parent. The school psychologist is measuring Matthew every two months to assist him show his feelings. The head-master is the squad spokes-person / go-between. When squad members encounter troubles such as something that is impeding, different sentiments / schemes ; the caput maestro organizes a meeting to discourse these jobs. The student`s female parent helps the squad by giving and suggests utile information to the squad because she knows the most about Matthew. Mathew`s coaction with in the squad is by giving his perspective position so that squad members can accurately turn to his demands. The Inco represent the squad outside the school premises. The purpose of the squad is to see Matthew independent every bit much as possible. 2.5 ) Degree of Support Matthew is supported with a full clip Lsa ( one to one support ) . He follows the course of study with differentiated acquisition and sometimes requires disengagements during lessons such as PSD and Music. 2.6 ) Types of support Adapted press releases, visuals, head maps, colour cryptography, mold, measure by measure instructions, illustrations, motivating ( easy gets distracted ) , and ICT ( Clicker 5 used in English lessons ; synergistic boards, computing machines for composing notes ) are ever used across all topics. During appraisals ( scrutiny ) Matthew is provided with a reader, prompter and excess clip is allowed. 2.7 ) Student`s Level of Functioning Cognitive accomplishments Auditory Processing – Matthew has no job with hearing. He hears all right. The trouble is in how the encephalon interprets ( understanding the construct ) . Ocular processing – Levi does non hold any job with sight. Matthew finds trouble to organize and pull strings accurate images in his head ( scheme ) . Memory Skills – This is the country which most impairs Matthew`s acquisition. Matthew is limited to new information ( short term memory ) . He picks up merely spots and pieces of what is being said during a lesson ensuing him in doing sense of merely a small. Processing velocity – This country rely on the Memory accomplishments and there is a displacement depending on the undertaking. As stated antecedently Matthew has all right motor accomplishments and if for illustration he had to construct a cot, he performs good ( and even more rapidly than his equals ) . If he had to read / compose a short paragraph, he finds it really hard because of restrictions in more than one of the basic psychological factors. Logic and Reasoning – Matthew can execute good when categorising and grouping objects. Due to the fact that Matthew`s memory limit the information, the encephalon terminal up to treat wrong information. Communication Speech – Levi does non happen trouble in speech production. He has all right articulation, voice quality and eloquence every bit good as non verbal behaviors such as facial looks, gestures and caput and organic structure motion. Language – When giving / having information in his first linguistic communication ( Maltese ) Matthew does ticket. When he communicates in English Matthew finds it hard to pass on because of deficient vocabulary. He besides use gestures to show himself when speaking in English. Self-help accomplishments Matthew is independent in his self-help accomplishments. He has all right eye-hand coordination and finds no trouble in taking attention of himself. Socialization Matthew doesn`t find any trouble in socialising. He is a friendly individual. At school during deferral he normally likes to badger others and being ill-mannered. Matthew does non hold many friends at school. After school he spent most of the clip with his two friends. 3 ) Reflection`s Analysis Report Note: The contemplation is based on what the perceiver ( me ) saw during the 25 hours observation at school, community and place. 3.1 ) Environmental factors School Factors Through the eight hours observation at school, Matthew`s behavior was triggered by these factors: Learning ( embarrassment and ennui ) Rejection Labelled Contending Cipher have the power to command over the environment and neither Matthew has the power to command his equals, Lsa`s and instructor. Learning ( Embarrassment ) – Due to his past unwellness, cognitively, Matthew is limited to larning. Matthew feels embarrassed when he finds constructs difficult to larn. Sometimes pedagogues trigger the student`s behavior because the more they try to make their work, the more they creates jobs ( see school observation 1 A ; 8 ) . Then a clip bomb ignites with a concatenation reaction of Matthew`s temperament start escalating, Lsa start to panic because she feels defeated that her instruction was non reached, Matthew acquire worried about his self-image and get down concentrating on his equals instead on his Lsa until he explodes with the first thing he encounters. Learning ( Annoyment ) -This besides depend on how the instructor uses his resources to do the lesson interesting. There is no 1 size fits all for differentiated acquisition. As stated before, Matthew is at hazard of ADHD and if the lesson is non interesting, than the ennui triggers his attending ( see school observation 6 ) . A clear illustration of positive behavior is when lessons stimulate Matthew. In these lessons, his behavior defined as â€Å" disputing † is diminished ( see school observation 3, 4, 5,7 A ; 13 ) . These two factors have one thing in common. For these behaviors Matthew apply the â€Å" Escape † map. For him escape makes him be in a positive province. Not all behaviors occur so the individual can â€Å" obtain † something ; many behaviors occur because the individual wants to acquire off from something or avoid something wholly ( Miltenberger, 2008 ) ( Miltinberg, 2008 ) ( Cooper, 207 ) Rejection – â€Å" While it might look unusual that a individual would prosecute in a behavior to intentionally hold person scold them it can happen because for some people it ‘s better to obtain â€Å" bad † attending than no attending at all † ( Cooper, Heron A ; Heward, 2007 ) . Matthew is disliked by most of his equals and he uses inappropriate behaviors to pull attending. Attention is attracted in two ways ; either by cursing ( to affect or demoing that he is tough as show in all in the S.T.A.R theoretical account action column ) or by moving out ( observation 6 A ; seven ) . Labeling – At school Matthew is labelled. As stated antecedently sometimes instructors are the job and see merely the negative of the individual. ( See observation 11 ) . Negative labels can all excessively easy go self-fulfilling prognostications. They prevent you from seeing the kid ‘s positive qualities. They besides cause you to take down your outlooks of the person. When you can see a kid in a positive visible radiation, it helps him to see himself that manner, and to move more positively. Contending – â€Å" Alternatively they learn to anticipate rejection and may even detect that the best defence is a strong discourtesy and work stoppage out preemptively to protect themselves † – ( Moffitt, 1997 ) At school everybody knows what is Matthew`s failing and unluckily there are pupils that prefer to acquire hit and see Matthew in problem ( see school observation interruptions ) . In the yesteryear he was being bullied, and this still affects him. He uses this behavior to demo that he does non let anyone to of all time mess with him. Community A ; Home factors From the observations done in the community ( 9hours ) and at place ( 7hours ) , there is noteworthy displacement in Matthew`s behavior between that exhibited at school and that exhibited in the community and at place. In the community Matthew does non seek much attending and he is a different individual from school ( see community observation 1 A ; 3 ) . The behaviour displacements, because Matthew is non restricted by regulations and there is nil that embarrasses him such as acquisition. ( Wehmeyer, 1996 ) ( Hong, 2007 ) ( Ryan, 1995 ) When Matthew feels restricted, his behavior is triggered. At place sometimes he feels besides restricted either because he wants privateness or that when no curse is allowed ( place observation 1 ) . 3.2 ) Degree of Self-government â€Å" Self-government refers to â€Å" moving † as the primary insouciant agent in one`s life and doing picks and determinations sing one`s quality of life free from undo external influence or intervention † – ( Wehmeyer, 1996, p.24 ) To be self-determined, one has to be motivated. When there aren`t custodies on activities or stimulated feelings, Matthew loses involvement. To be motivated one has to be self-assured. Being disliked and rejected, Matthew has low self-prides and that why he uses the â€Å" flight † map because ne’er trust himself. A scheme for motive is the execution of picks. During the observations done the picks were rare and in fact, throughout the 25 hours of observation there was merely one pick given ( see school observation 2 ) . Choices aid people get motivated. â€Å" Goal scene is related to leting pupils to do picks, which besides can advance, self-government, independency, socialisation, positive behavior, and better academic public presentation † – ( Hong et al. , 2007 pg 232 ) . The demand for liberty is conceptualized in footings of sing a sense of pick, indorsement, and will with regard to initiating, maintaining, and ending behavioral battle. A If pupils are able to believe about their picks and the effects before they act, and take a safe, acceptable behavior, so the optimum result of the disciplinary procedure will hold been achieved. â€Å" To be autonomously motivated involves experiencing a sense of pick and will as a individual to the full endorses his or her ain actions or determinations † ( Ryan 1995 ) . In a nutshell, acquisition is a precedence for Matthew because it is impacting his behavior and besides his self-government. A behaviour support program will be created to assist Matthew place, control and decide inappropriate behaviors ; by being presented differentiated instruction to actuate him. Motivation helps him be self-determined and self finding increase his quality of life. 4 ) Behaviour Support program 4.1 ) Baseline When meeting acquisition that is hard to understand, lessons that do non excite him, relationships that are difficult to manage, he expresses his feelings into disputing behavior utilizing the â€Å" flight map † . This map leads him to lose the control of his behavior by ; deteriorating his relationship with his equals and instructors, restrict Matthew from larning and affects his self-pride. 4.2 ) Long Term Goal Matthew will be able learn by commanding his behavior ( choler, defeat, embarrassment and ennui ) . 4.3 ) Short-term Goals 4.31 ) Lsa A ; Teacher Lsa A ; instructors will function to pattern mature problem-solving, non fall backing to the same inappropriate behavior ( e.g: maintaining composures, Lsa communicates / talk in a low voice that merely Matthew can understand and non be heard by remainder of the category to forestall Matthew from being embarrassed and accidentally put the pupil under the limelight ; make non take the affairs personally [ panic or agitation ] and think of themselves ( pedagogues ) as fire combatants ) . Lsa A ; teacher will pull an image in the student`s head that s/he is non merely making the occupation merely to acquire paid but because s/he truly care ( indirectly inquiring the pupil for the chance to see you ( Lsa A ; teacher ) as a individual he can swear. Lsa will be prepared if the pupil fails the teacher`s illustration ( Plan B ) . Plan B consist of: Lsa will move â€Å" cool † like nil happened and still see the strength in the pupil that he can win. Lsa will get down inquiring unfastened inquiries to see what the pupil had understood. Lsa will associate the subject to the student`s avocations / life experiences by doing it more interesting instead than doing him flight ( e.g. associating Maths in mundane life state of affairs, associating English as if the pupil has to fall in love with a English adult female. Teaching schemes that motivates larning Teachers in coaction with Lsa will: Plan and portion resources to supply interesting lesson ( UDL for larning ) that stimulate â€Å" every † pupil to include everyone. Design equal coaction such as activities that involvement and prove their cognition. ( Groups consist of 5 members. Matthew`s group has to be ever arranged in a ratio of 3:1 – 3 friends and 1 equal that dislike Matthew. The negative equal ever alterations throughout the twelvemonth. This helps Matthew to go on solid his relationship with his friends and bettering his relationship with equals that dislike him. Therefore there is no demand to seek attending. Help â€Å" all † pupils change their position of cardinal to success / failure from an outside factor ( hard degree of the undertaking ) to an internal factor ( attempt, ability ) Offer picks ( in instructional scenes ) wages pupils for achieving â€Å" personal best † ends ( free clip ) Give immediate feedback. 5 ) Decision With the execution of the Behavioral Support program will assist Matthew will cut down the dispositions to the point of extinguishing them ( practising ) and interchanging them with positive behavior. Peer coaction will assist Matthew do more friends in a positive manner and there is no demand to seek attending with inappropriate behaviors. With this scheme he will larn that regard is gained by positive behavior. Choices will assist Matthew experience included and in control. It helps his self-pride and besides his development. He learns to do determinations scenes where he has some control. This aid him to larn accepting state of affairss where there is no picks to separate. He will larn to use this construct by get downing from school and go oning throughout the community. Wagess will actuate Matthew to larn and do him desire to make the undertaking once more. The more Matthew will be rewarded, the more will assist him develop relationships, addition appropriate interactions and po lish his bing accomplishments. This will assist him to develop resilience and increase his quality of life. â€Å" Ignoring the behavior on its ain is non traveling to assist ; the kid will presume they are winning or acquiring off with the behavior. Ignoring it and praising the good behavior will state the kid which behavior is appropriate † – Eileen Geiger Mentions How to cite The Impact Of Challenging Behaviour Education Essay, Essay examples

Thursday, April 30, 2020

The Birthday party Essay Example For Students

The Birthday party Essay Meg flouts the maxim of quantity, considering and questioning the whereabouts of Stanley, Is Stanley up yet? I dont know, I havent seen him down yet, Havent you seen him down? and He must be still asleep. Again when Meg questions Petey about the lightness or darkness of the morning, but sometimes you go out in the morning and its dark suggests a sinister and deceitful situation and that Petey may be acting in a dubious manner. Meg doesnt recognize her own inferences to which Petey responds ambiguously. She takes his responses as his intention to communicate rather than his intention. We will write a custom essay on The Birthday party specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now Meg is only aware of the interior, shown by her positioning behind the serving hatch and darning, implying her inferior status. Petey flouts the maxim of quality, we are not sure that Petey is telling the truth. When Meg asks What does it say? Petey replies. Nothing much, keeping information from her. Havent you seen him down? Petey replies, Ive only just come in avoiding affirmation. Petey is motivated by the two men and needs to motivate Meg and the maxim of quantity is flouted when Meg repeats Peteys utterance with yes, they must have done. They must have heard this was a very good boarding house. It is. This is These utterances are unlike natural conversation, the dramatic effect emphasises the threat from the two men. Deixis distances the two men, they and them from Megs interior world, protecting her from outside forces and keeping her distant from too much information. Petey contributes a positive attitude, offering Meg an interactive conversation when he wants to achieve something. Here, Petey becomes the dominant speaker, initiating a change of topic, asking the questions and obeying the maxim of quantity by giving the correct amount of information. The audience may feel that at the same time, he flouts the maxim of quality as Petey seems to leave out relevant information by being indistinct, as Pinter discusses, it is what he doesnt say. Towards the end of the segment, the maxim of relation is broken when Meg states, Im going to wake that boy and Petey responds with an unconnected reply and irrelevant information, Theres new show coming to the Palace. This response is uncooperative and unlike natural conversation, as both speakers are talking about different topics. Meg follows, breaking the maxim of relation once again, On the pier? Meg had clearly not paid attention to Peteys given information. Both characters appear to be passive participants however the audience are lead to believe that they turn out to be active participants in a bigger picture. The final /y/ in Petey gives the impact that Petey is a small character in a big story. The stunted conversation and pauses show that Petey is not interested in Megs trivial conversation. It emerges that Petey is evasive, distracted and nervous in his attempt to keep the truth from Meg, building a tension between the characters. Megs topics of conversation are trivial, having restricted knowledge and is reminiscent. She is compliant and accommodating in her interior world and doesnt appear to be a complex character. Megs persistent questioning is often interrogatory Who who? , Whats her name? , What is it? . This also illustrates that she feels threatened by unknown forces from the outside world. Her tag questions demonstrate that she is self doubting and uncertain. On the surface, Meg appears to be desperate for company and conversation, relentlessly asking questions and fussing over Petey. .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .postImageUrl , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:hover , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:visited , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:active { border:0!important; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:active , .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25 .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u851010c1d3ff61901c0fc91753cf4a25:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Legalize Marijuana EssayMeg utters twice as many words as Petey. She has the most (83:60 approx.) and longest utterances and initiates the higher amount of topic changes, allocating turns to Petey by her questions. It is ironic that Meg is portrayed as a character with an inability to comprehend as she is given the larger word count. In the exchange about the girl in the newspaper, Meg repeats questions to which she has already received Peteys answers.Pinter presents an accurately observed example of linguistic and conversational nonsense. This section has a similarity to naturally occurring conversation; it is informal, colloquial, contains voiced filler, Er and responsiv e body language (studying the paper). The utterances are equal and short and create a fast pace, echoing natural conversation, yet the information is again irrelevant nonsense. In normal conversation, Meg would be accepted as the superior speaker yet it is apparent that Petey is the dominant character by not giving Meg his full attention, implying that his newspaper and his thoughts are more important. He controls Meg by his pauses, he makes her wait for his short or negative responses, Not bad, Nothing much. His interaction is limited and he has no stage direction for paralanguage. The audience may receive the impression that he knows something Meg does not. Peteys schemas; work, the outside world, the information from the newspaper and the beach are all out of reach for Meg. Meg has no extrinsic connections, giving a sense that she has no ambition or interest in the outside world. A taxonomic hierarchy is in place, created by the language choice and content given to the characters; Meg assumes she dominates Stanley, referring to him as a child, Im going to wake that boy, amending his name to Stanny and use of persuasive language, Im going to count three showing her only power in her imaginary matriarchal position. Petey dominates Meg. Peteys silences demonstrate an unwillingness to communicate and the dramatists message to the audience. The two men who are only referred to and do not speak represent the exterior. What is not said becomes a threat of the unknown. The threat they pose appears to dominate Petey. Even if the speaker remains silent, the audience, or public can eventually find out the real truths; Pinter demonstrates how people are too engrossed in the nihilism of everyday life, unaware of what is happening other levels in their society. Megs relentless questions do not form natural conversation and show a constructed form. Her tag questions suggest her suspicion and disbelief of Peteys answers. The stage direction, She watches him eat also shows her scepticism. All Megs efforts are futile. She is never going to find out anything beyond the given information Working on two levels in drama; the conversation topic between the characters deeper meaning between the playwright and the audience present Grices theory of implicature, Meg and Petey break the maxim of manner throughout. Pinter uses specific expressions, Cleaned up a bit, Had they heard about us? , This house is on the list, Can you do it This is a straight show, They just talk, and Im coming to fetch you. This shows how the audience can move from the expressed meanings to the implied meanings. Similarly, Lady Mary Splatt, has an expressed meaning with the name, Splatt, and an implied meaning; Splatt is onomatopoeic and has connotations of something or someone being battered and or squashed. Beach, pier, dancing and singing belong to the semantic field of seaside towns and offer a location for the event. This is Pinters way of establishing an idea, for his audience to infer what might happen at a later point in the play. The statement, Im going to count three! could also imply that the two men and Petey are interconnected with the plays as yet unknown outcome. Unlike natural conversation, the drama presents two meanings to one set of dialogue. .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .postImageUrl , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:hover , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:visited , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:active { border:0!important; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:active , .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u2db4fb70a090fa090937a27d0ed1092c:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: The Firemen of House 24 EssayPinters style of communicating through ambiguous language broken with silences is often reflective of natural speech yet the premeditated dialogue appears to be designed for a dramatic effect. Pinters secondary level of meaning is always intended. Pinter uses a breakdown of normal language responses between the two characters dialogue to show their neuroses or desires. The break-down of relationships are exposed by the disjointed and disconnected, often uncooperative, conversational language. Yet the sentences in the play are always completed, signifying a constructed dialogue. It is obvious that the dialogue is planned, presenting a difference to natural speech, which is generally flooded with interruptions, overlaps and unfinished sentences. Pinters tightly controlled dialogue is described in Martin Esslins words, every syllable, inflection, the succession of long and short sounds, words, sentences is calculated to nicety. The analysis demonstrates that the dialogue is clearly constructed for the audience. Pinters underlying messages are implied with specific meanings and conveyed to the audience by the repetitive pauses and particularly with what is not said.

Saturday, March 21, 2020

Historians essays

Historians essays As history unfolds or produces, different attitudes or different moods and minds look back to the changes. Today, year 2003, America has essentially taken on from the New Left movement by historians. The interpretation involves the including of key circumstances and points. For example these historians look back to include these women who made contributions but were not recognized as do they include minorities as well. Many of these historians who have went back to retrace these pasts are of two categories: amateurs and professional. These seemingly same historians actually depict differently. The topic of debate for many historians such as George Bancroft or Frederick Jackson Turner is the concern of Native Americans and their role in history. Famous amateur historians such as William Byrd wanted or hoped the American relationship with the Natives would have more or less resembled that of the French. The French had intertwined the differences of eh two cultures by promoting sanction between men and women of both the French and Native culture (i.e. marriage). A controversial debate with Byrds idea of Natives is the application of dowries in those marriages or assuming the Natives as gifts. The ambition by many historians such as Byrd was that once the initial threat of these Native Americans was depleted then the relationship would be reshaped. Edmund Randolph, another amateur historian, had a similar but different aspect of the Natives as William Byrd. Circumstances surrounding each historian, such as the society around was molded by constant confrontations between the white settlers and the founding Native Americans. These quarrels or wars shaped a different attitude for the various historians. Edmund Randolph described to his viewers that the white frontiersmen had broken the law when they crossed over the Proclamation Line following the Seven Years War. ...

Wednesday, March 4, 2020

Your guide on how to become an electrician

Your guide on how to become an electrician There will always be a need for tradespeople who work with wiring, machines, and other electrical equipment. Electricians keep us powered up, and they possess specialized skills to do work that could be dangerous in the hands of an amateur. If you are considering joining the ranks of these essential professionals, there are several things you need to know about becoming an electrician. What do electricians do?This seems like a no-brainer: electricians work with electrical equipment. That job description is both accurate and completely inadequate because the term â€Å"electrical equipment† includes so much and the work is so varied. Electricians perform repairs, installations, and maintenance. We are probably most used to having electricians visit our homes to install new outlets or repair faulty wiring, but they also perform their work in factories, construction sites, shops, and businesses. They work indoors and out, and the equipment on which they work stretches well beyond household appliances and wiring. Electricians may also decide to specialize in wiring airplanes, ships, cable and data systems.As for the less-specialized electrician, there are four common types:Residential wiremen, who install and repair household wiring.Inside wiremen, who install and repair wiring in non-residential structures, such as factories, arenas, airports, schools, and office buildings.Outside linemen, who lay the cables that connect power plants to residences and buildings.Telecommunications electricians, who install television, telephone, and Internet cables.What skills do electricians have?Electricians do a lot more than connecting cables from one power source to another. They possess a large quantity of skills, both general and specific to their particular areas of specialization.General skills include:Understanding the National Electric Code, which is the regional standard for electrical safety requirementsProblem solvingElectrical safetyWorking with tools such as amp meters, digital multimeters, pliers, measuring devices, drills, saws, etc.Reading blueprintsPlotting the installation of wiring throughout buildingsLocating and replacing faulty wiresWorking with circuit breakers and fusesLocating the energy flow to transformers and circuit breakersAssessing the work of other electriciansEnsuring that electrical work is up to safety standardsManaging electrical crewsMentoring apprenticesMore specialized skills may include installing factory equipment, fiber optic cable, alarm systems, and intercom systems.What education do electricians need?Electrical work is not the kind of thing you need a master’s degree or even a bachelor’s degree to do. You will, however, need a high school diploma or GED. That’s because electricians need a solid foundation in reading comprehension, algebra, physics, trigonometry, and ideally, electronics. Shop and mechanical drawing classes can also be very relevant to the kind of work electricians per form, though these courses are not offered by all high schools. Therefore, it might be useful to seek out extracurricular courses in these areas. They will help you to work with the equipment, understand the technical documents, and comprehend the scientific concepts involved in electrical work.What training do electricians need?While electricians are not expected to earn higher education degrees, they are expected to undergo formal training and earn licenses. This begins with a pre-apprenticeship training program. Such programs are often offered at trade and vocational schools. Although it is possible to find work as an apprentice without having already gone through a pre-apprenticeship program, such a program will make learning a lot easier.Following the pre-apprenticeship program, you will apply for an apprenticeship. The earlier you apply the better, because there will likely be a lot of candidates vying for available apprenticeships.As an apprentice, the goal is to learn the sk ills you need on the job- acting under high-pressure circumstances, trying to perform a service for a customer, and making your supervisor happy. In a pre-apprenticeship program, there’s more room to make the kinds of mistakes that all new students make. You would also get plenty of hands on training in the classroom and a firm understanding of the National Electric Code.There are several organizations that offer apprenticeships:The International Brotherhood of Electrical WorkersIndependent Electrical ContractorsThe National Electrical Contractors AssociationThe National Joint Apprenticeship and Training CommitteeWhen you apply for an apprenticeship, you may have to take an aptitude test that examines your basic reading comprehension, arithmetic, and algebra skills. Certain states have other requirements, such as becoming registered, that may include paying a fee.While apprenticing, you get on-the-job training from a licensed electrician and an hourly salary for your work. Yo u usually start out performing simple tasks, but these will get more and more complex as your training continues.What certification do electricians need?Once you have completed your apprenticeship, you will need to earn a license and/or certification depending on the state in which you plan to work. Each state has its own requirements. For example, some states only require licenses if you plan to start your own business, while others do not require licenses at all. In states that do require licenses, you will earn yours by passing an exam. The exam tests your knowledge of such concepts as how electricity works, job safety, regional laws, and the National Electric Code. Most states require some formal education and practical electrical training.How much do electricians earn?Electricians’ salaries can vary greatly, depending on factors like location, years of experience, and the specific company salary structure. On average, an electrician earns $25 per hour- about $13 per hour at the lower end of the scale and $35 per hour at the upper end. However, taking overtime, bonuses, tips, and profit sharing into account, the average annual salary is $52,720 and an electrician can earn as much as $82k per year. According to PayScale.com, two-thirds of electricians working in the United States also receive medical coverage.How is the job market for electricians?Short answer: great! According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the electrical industry is a fast growing one. With a 14% increase in jobs projected from 2014 to 2024, growth is happening much faster than it is in most other fields. This is due to a burst in construction of new homes and buildings. All of those structures need new wiring, and if you earn your electrician certification, that will be where you come in!